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Dual Axis Solar Tracking Systems

Dual Axis Solar Tracking Systems

Dual Axis Solar Tracking Systems

The use of a highly portable, efficient Dual Axis Solar Tracking Systems can be very useful to applications of the military, industrial, or residential variety. To produce an efficient solar generation system, a scaled down dual-axis solar tracker was designed, built and tested. At most, the solar tracker was perpendicular to the light source within 3 degrees.

Dual Axis Solar Tracking Systems uses motors, gears, and actuators to position the solar tracker so that it is perpendicular to the sunlight. Dual Axis Solar Tracking Systems that use sensors to track the sun position inputs data into the controller, which in turns drives the motors and actuators to position the tracker. There are also trackers that uses solar map. Depending on the location, solar maps give information on where the sun is at different time of day throughout the year. Dual Axis Solar Tracking Systems that use solar map do not need sensors input to track the sun. But there are also tracker that uses both sensors and solar map. During sunny weather, the sensor would be used to track the sun. But during cloud-covered times, the information from the solar map would be used. It is important to track the sun even in cloudy condition since solar panels can produce energy during cloudy conditions. Passive Passive trackers use compressed gas to move the tracker. Depending on the position sunlight is falling on the gas containers difference in gas pressure is created, moving the tracker until it gets to an equilibrium position. The advantage of passive tracker is that the tracking system does not require a controller. But passive trackers are slow in response and are vulnerable to wind.

Control

The main purpose of the controller is to receive data from the sensors, process it, and give signals to drive the motors and actuators. Looking at it simply, a human can take the place of a controller. A person can see where the sun is and rotate the tracker manually to get the most energy. But it is not a feasible option for a long term or when there is more than one tracker, like in a solar power plant. So automated controllers become a necessity. Controllers must also take into account what to do when the sun sets, when the wind is too high, or other physical conditions.

Single Axis Solar Tracking Systems

Single Axis Solar Tracking Systems

Single Axis Solar Tracking Systems

 

Single Axis Solar Tracking System is a device for orienting a solar panel or concentrating a solar reflector or lens towards the sun. Concentrators, especially in solar cell applications, require a high degree of accuracy to ensure that the concentrated sunlight is directed precisely to the powered device. Precise tracking of the sun is achieved through systems with Single Axis Solar Tracking Systems or Dual Axis Solar Tracking Systems.

Sunlight has two components, the “direct beam” that carries about 90% of the solar energy, and the “diffuse sunlight” that carries the remainder – the diffuse portion is the blue sky on a clear day and increases proportionately on cloudy days. As the majority of the energy is in the direct beam, maximizing collection requires the Sun to be visible to the panels as long as possible.

The energy contributed by the direct beam drops off with the cosine of the angle between the incoming light and the panel. In addition, the reflectance (averaged across all polarizations) is approximately constant for angles of incidence up to around 50°, beyond which reflectance degrades rapidly.

For example, Single Axis Solar Tracking Systems that have accuracies of ± 5° can deliver greater than 99.6% of the energy delivered by the direct beam plus 100% of the diffuse light. As a result, high accuracy tracking is not typically used in non-concentrating PV applications.

The Sun travels through 360 degrees east to west per day, but from the perspective of any fixed location the visible portion is 180 degrees during an average 1/2 day period (more in spring and summer; less, in fall and winter). Local horizon effects reduce this somewhat, making the effective motion about 150 degrees. A solar panel in a fixed orientation between the dawn and sunset extremes will see a motion of 75 degrees to either side, and thus, according to the table above, will lose 75% of the energy in the morning and evening. Rotating the panels to the east and west can help recapture those losses. A tracker rotating in the east–west direction is known as a Single Axis Solar Tracking Systems.

The Sun also moves through 46 degrees north and south during a year. The same set of panels set at the midpoint between the two local extremes will thus see the Sun move 23 degrees on either side, causing losses of 8.3% A tracker that accounts for both the daily and seasonal motions is known as a dual-axis tracker. Generally speaking, the losses due to seasonal angle changes is complicated by changes in the length of the day, increasing collection in the summer in northern or southern latitudes. This biases collection toward the summer, so if the panels are tilted closer to the average summer angles, the total yearly losses are reduced compared to a system tilted at the spring/fall solstice angle (which is the same as the site’s latitude).

There is considerable argument within the industry whether the small difference in yearly collection between single and dual-axis trackers makes the added complexity of a two-axis tracker worthwhile. A recent review of actual production statistics from southern Ontario suggested the difference was about 4% in total, which was far less than the added costs of the dual-axis systems. This compares unfavourably with the 24-32% improvement between a fixed-array and single-axis tracker.

Internet of Things-IoT Solutions

Internet of Things-IoT Solutions

Internet of Things-IoT Solutions

Internet of Things-IoT Solutions

Internet of Things (IoT) is a sprawling set of technologies and use cases that has no clear, single definition. One workable view frames IoT as the use of network-connected devices, embedded in the physical environment, to improve some existing process or to enable a new scenario not previously possible.

These devices, or things, connect to the network to provide information they gather from the environment through sensors, or to allow other systems to reach out and act on the world through actuators. They could be connected versions of common objects you might already be familiar with, or new and purpose-built devices for functions not yet realized. They could be devices that you own personally and have on your person or in your home, or they could be embedded in factory equipment, or part of the fabric of the city you live in. Each of them is able to convert valuable information from the real world into digital data that provides increased visibility into how your users interact with your products, services, or applications.

The specific use cases and opportunities across different industries are numerous, and in many ways the world of IoT is just getting started. What emerges from these scenarios is a set of common challenges and patterns. IoT projects have additional dimensions that increase their complexity when compared to other cloud-centric technology applications, including:

  • Diverse hardware
  • Diverse operating systems and software on the devices
  • Different network gateway requirements

This guide explains the elements you can combine with Google Cloud Platform to build a robust, maintainable, end-to-end IoT solution on Cloud Platform.

Overview of the top level components

Here we divide the system into three basic components, the device, gateway, and cloud:

Three components

A device includes hardware and software that directly interacts with the world. Devices connect to a network to communicate with each other, or to centralized applications. Devices might be directly or indirectly connected to the Internet.

A gateway enables devices that are not directly connected to the Internet to reach cloud services. Although the term gateway has a specific function in networking, it is also used to describe a class of device that processes data on behalf of a group or cluster of devices. The data from each device is sent to Cloud Platform, where it is processed and combined with data from other devices, and potentially with other business-transactional data.

Types of information

Each device can provide or consume various types of information. Each form of information might best be handled by a different backend system, and each system should be specialized around the data rate, volume, and preferred API. This section lists and describes common categories of information found in IoT scenarios.

Device metadata

Metadata contains information about a device. Most metadata is immutable or rarely changes. Examples of metadata fields include:

  • Identifier (ID) – An identifier that uniquely identifies a device. The device ID should never change for the lifespan of a deployed device.
  • Class or type
  • Model
  • Revision
  • Date manufactured
  • Hardware serial number

State information

State information describes the current status of the device, not of the environment. This information can be read/write. It is updated, but usually not frequently.

Telemetry

Data collected by the device is called telemetry. This is the eyes-and-ears data that IoT devices provide to applications. Telemetry is read-only data about the environment, usually collected through sensors.

Each source of telemetry results in a channel. Telemetry data might be preserved as a stateful variable on the device or in the cloud.

Although each device might send only a single data point every minute, when you multiply that data by a large number of devices, you quickly need to apply big data strategies and patterns.

Commands

Commands are actions performed by a device. Commands often have traits that constrain the choices available in your implementation. These traits include:

  • Commands are not easily represented as state data.
  • Commands are often not idempotent, which means each duplicate message usually results in a different outcome. Like messaging systems, the implementation of a command function determines the delivery semantics, such as “at least once” or “exactly once”. The command mechanism can include a return value, or might rely on the confirmation being made through a separate return message or by reflecting the expected change in the state data.
  • Commands might be of limited temporal relevance, and so they should include a time-to-live (TTL) or other expiration value.

Examples of commands include:

  • Spin 360 degrees to the right.
  • Run self cleaning cycle.
  • Increase the rate by ten percent.

Operational information

Operational information is data that’s most relevant to the operation of the device as opposed to the business application. This might include things such as CPU operating temperature and battery state. This kind of data might not have long-term analytical value, but it has short-term value to help maintain the operating state, such as responding to breakages and correcting performance degradation of software after updates.

Operational information can be transmitted as telemetry or state data.

Devices

It’s not always clear what constitutes a device. Many physical things are modular, which means it can be hard to decide whether the whole machine is the device, or each module is a discrete device. There’s no single, right answer to this question. As you design your IoT project, you’ll need to think about the various levels of abstraction in your design and make decisions about how to represent the physical things and their relationships to each other. The specific requirements of your application will help you understand whether something that generates information should be treated as a device, and therefore deserves its own ID, or is simply a channel or state detail of another device.

As an example, consider a project that has the goal of monitoring the temperature of rooms in a hotel. In each room there might be three sensors: one at the floor by the door, one on the ceiling, and one next to the bed. You can model this setup by representing each sensor as a device:

{deviceID: "dh28dslkja", "location": "floor", "room": 128, "temp": 22 }
{deviceID: "8d3kiuhs8a", "location": "ceiling", "room": 128, "temp": 24 }
{deviceID: "kd8s8hh3o", "location": "bedside", "room": 128, "temp": 23 }

You could also model the entire room as a device. While you usually wouldn’t consider a room to be a device, in IoT the device abstraction is really about what you manage and record from as a unit; it isn’t always limited to a single gizmo you can hold in your hand. Viewed that way, you could model the hotel room as a device that contains three sensors:

{deviceID: "dh28dslkja", "room": 128, "temp_floor": 22, "temp_ceiling": 24, "temp_bedside": 23, "average_temp":  23 }

Depending on the goals, one of these two data representations might be more correct than the other. Note the average temperature field in the second example. This might be what the hotel is looking for. Is metadata from each sensor most valuable on its own, or do the separate pieces of metadata make more sense applied to the room as a whole? What if the room was a suite and the three locations were the bathroom, lounge, and bedroom? These are the sorts of questions you’d need to ask yourself when deciding how to model the data. The domain model of the connected application defines the exact boundary of what constitutes the device.

Device hardware

General considerations when choosing hardware

When choosing hardware, consider the following factors, which are affected by how the hardware is deployed:

  • Cost. Given the value of the data provided, think about what cost can be supported for each device.
  • I/O roles. The device might be primarily a sensor, an actuator, or some combination of the two roles.
  • Power budget. The device might have access to electricity, or power might be scarce. Think about whether the device will require battery or solar power.
  • Networking environment. Consider whether the device can be wired directly to the Internet as TCP/IP routable. Some types of connections, such as cellular, can be expensive with high traffic. Think about the reliability of the network, and the impact of that reliability on latency and throughput. If it is wireless, consider the range the transmission power achieves and the added energy costs.

Functional inputs and outputs

The devices used to interact with the physical world contain components, or are connected to peripherals, that enable sensor input or actuator output. The specific hardware you choose for these hardware I/O components should be based on the functional requirements. For example, the sensitivity or complexity of the motion you need to detect will determine what kind of accelerometer you choose, or whether you need a gyro instead. If you are doing gas detection, the type of gases that the sensor can accurately detect matters. When using a device to produce output, you must consider requirements such as how loud a buzzer needs to sound, how fast a motor needs to turn, or how many amps a relay needs to carry.

In addition to the requirements determined by the environmental performance, the choice of these I/O components or peripherals might also be related to the type of information they are associated with. For example, a stepper motor can be set to a specific direction that might be represented in device state data, while a microphone might be steadily sampling data in terms of frequencies, which is best transmitted as telemetry. These components are connected to the logic systems of the device through a hardware interface.

Device platforms

There is an incredible amount of diversity in the specific hardware available to you for building IoT applications. This diversity starts with the options for hardware platforms. Common examples of platforms include single-board-computers such as theBeaglebone, Raspberry Pi, and Intel Edison as well as microcontroller platforms such as the Arduino series, boards from Particle, and the Adafruit Feather.

Each of these platforms lets you connect multiple types of sensor and actuator modules through a hardware interface.

These platforms interface with the modules using a layered approach similar to those used in general-purpose computing. If you think about the common, everyday computer mouse, you can consider the layers of peripheral, interface, driver and application. On a typical operating system, such as Linux or Windows, the hardware input is interpreted by a driver, which in turn relies on OS services, and might be part of the kernel. For simplicity, the following diagram omits the operating system.

Three components

Hardware Interfaces

Most hardware interfaces are serial interfaces. Serial interfaces generally use multiple wires to control the flow and timing of binary information along the primary data wire. Each type of hardware interface defines a method of communicating between a peripheral and the central processor.

IoT hardware platforms use a number of common interfaces. Sensor and actuator modules can support one or more of these interfaces:

  • USB. Universal Serial Bus is in common use for a wide array of plug-and-play capable devices.
  • GPIO. General-purpose input/output pins are connected directly to the processor. As their name implies, these pins are provided by the manufacturer to enable custom usage scenarios that the manufacturer didn’t design for. GPIO pins can be designed to carry digital or analog signals, and digital pins have only two states: HIGH or LOW.Digital GPIO can support Pulse Width Modulation (PWM). PWM lets you very quickly switch a power source on and off, with each “on” phase being a pulse of a particular duration, or width. The effect in the device can be a lower or higher power level. For example, you can use PWM to change the brightness of an LED; the wider the “on” pulses, the brighter the LED glows.Analog pins might have access to an on-board analog-to-digital conversion (ADC) circuit. An ADC periodically samples a continuous, analog waveform, such as an analog audio signal, giving each sample a digital value between zero and one, relative to the system voltage.When you read the value of a digital I/O pin in code, the value can must be either HIGH or LOW, where an analog input pin at any given moment could be any value in a range. The range depends on the resolution of the ADC. For example an 8-bit ADC can produce digital values from 0 to 255, while a 10-bit ADC can yield a wider range of values, from 0 to 1024. More values means higher resolution and thus a more faithful digital representation of any given analog signal.The ADC sampling rate determines the frequency range that an ADC can reproduce. A higher sampling rate results in a higher maximum frequency in the digital data. For example, an audio signal sampled at 44,100 Hz produces a digital audio file with a frequency response up to 22.5 kHz, ignoring typical filtering and other processing. The bit precision dictates the resolution of the amplitude of the signal.
  • I2C. Inter-Integrated Circuit serial bus uses a protocol that enables multiple modules to be assigned a discrete address on the bus. I2C is sometimes pronounced “I two C”, “I-I-C”, or “I squared C”.
  • SPI. Serial Peripheral Interface Bus devices employ a master-slave architecture, with a single master and full-duplex communication. SPI specifies four logic signals:
    • SCLK: Serial Clock, which is output from the master
    • MOSI: Master Output Slave Input, which is output from the master
    • MISO: Master Input Slave Output, which is output from a slave
    • SS: Slave Select, which is an active-low signal output from master
  • UART. Universal Asynchronous Receiver/Transmitter devices translate data between serial and parallel forms at the point where the data is acted on by the processor. UART is required when serial data must be laid out in memory in a parallel fashion.

Hardware abstraction in software

An operating system abstracts common computing resources such as memory and file I/O. The OS also provides very low-level support for the different hardware interfaces. Generally these abstractions are not easy to use directly, and frequently the OS does not provide abstractions for the wide range of sensor and actuator modules you might encounter in building IoT solutions.

You can take advantage of libraries that abstract hardware interfaces across platforms. These libraries enable you to work with a device, such as a motion detector, in a more straightforward way. Using a library lets you focus on collecting the information the module provides to your application instead of on the low-level details of working directly with hardware.

Some libraries provide abstractions that represent peripherals in the form of lightweight drivers on top of the hardware interfaces. Examples of these libraries include the Johnny-Five JavaScript framework, MRAA, which supports multiple languages, the EMBDGo library, Arduino-wiring, and Firmata.

Computing environment

The computing environment of your platform executes the software. Based on the hardware constraints of power and cost, the capabilities of the processor will vary. Some computing environments consist of a full system on a chip (SOC), which can support an embedded Linux operating system. Microcontroller-based devices might be more constrained, and your application code could run directly on the processor without the support of an operating system.

These computing environments are the bridge between the logic of your application code and the physical hardware of the platform. The software they run might be entirely loaded during boot up from read-only memory (ROM). Alternatively, the environment might result from a staged boot process. This process loads a small program called a bootloader from ROM, which then loads a full operating system from onboard flash or a connected SD card.

On-device processing

After data is collected from a sensor, the device can provide data processing functionality before sending the data to the cloud. Multiple devices might handle the data before it gets to the cloud, and each might perform some amount of processing.

Processing includes things like:

  • Converting data to another format
  • Packaging data in a way that’s secure and combines the data into a practical batch
  • Validating data to ensure it meets a set of rules
  • Sorting data to create a preferred sequence
  • Enhancing data to decorate the core value with additional related information
  • Summarizing data to reduce the volume and eliminate unneeded or unwanted detail
  • Combining data into aggregate values

On-device analysis can combine multiple processing tasks to provide an intermediate, synthesized interpretation that enables more information to be transmitted in a smaller data footprint.

Three components

Device Management

Device management is similar to other IT asset management: the main concerns are provisioning, operating, and updating the devices. These concerns apply to all devices, including gateways.

Provisioning

Provisioning is the process of setting up a new device. Provisioning includes:

  • Bootstrapping with basic device information. At a minimum, a device needs an ID and basic metadata.
  • Credentials and authentication required for secure communications. For example, the device can be provided a token or a service account key that can be used for ongoing communications. Such credentials can have an expiration time.
  • Authorizing the device. Authorization establishes the permissions of the device to interact with the application or other services, relying on the authentication credentials already established, by using a trusted service or hardware key for confirmation.
  • Setting up the network connection. A device needs a network connection to be able to communicate with other services and to transmit data.
  • Registering the device. Applications needs to know which devices are available. A registration service enables devices to register themselves as resources to be discovered and used by applications.

Operations

The daily operation of an IoT system requires that you collect the right information about what’s going on. Similar to any IT-hardware deployment, the logging of various events and the monitoring of key status metrics through dashboards and alert mechanisms can help you keep things running smoothly. Cloud Platform provides features that you can use to your advantage for daily operations:

  • Google Cloud Monitoring provides dashboards and alerts for your cloud-powered applications. On Linux-based devices, you can install the Cloud Monitoring agent, which is a Stackdriver-based system agent. Alternatively, you can use the Cloud Monitoring API with custom metrics.
  • Google Cloud Logging collects and stores logs. The logging agent streams logs to Cloud Platform where they’re stored so you can view, search, filter, and export the information. Using Cloud Logging can save you a lot of time and effort compared to building a custom logging solution.
  • Google Cloud audit logs capture administrative and data-access activities related to Cloud Platform, storing them in immutable logs that can be used for auditing and compliance purposes.
  • Google Stackdriver Error Reporting uses the Stackdriver Logging agent to stream error and exception data to Cloud Platform so you can view the data in the Google Cloud Platform Console.

Over-the-air updates

The sheer scale of a typical IoT deployment means that updating individual devices on site is not practical. Because devices already have some sort of network connection by design, updating devices can be made simpler by pushing updates across the network. In cellular phone parlance, this is an over-the-air (OTA) update, and the same idea applies in IoT. Some options include:

  • Brillo. If you use Brillo-based hardware, OTA updating is built in.
  • Setting up your own Debian package repository (APT) on Cloud Platform.
  • Resin.io. Based on the Yocto Project, resin.io lets you use familiar tools such as Docker and git to push container image updates.

Gateway

A gateway manages traffic between networks that use different protocols. A gateway is responsible for protocol translation and other interoperability tasks. An IoT gateway device is sometimes employed to provide the connection and translation between devices and the cloud. Because some devices don’t contain the network stack required for Internet connectivity, a gateway device acts as a proxy, receiving data from devices and packaging it for transmission over TCP/IP.

A dedicated gateway device might be a requirement if devices in the deployment:

  • Don’t have routable connectivity to the Internet, for example, Bluetooth devices.
  • Don’t have processing capability needed for transport-layer security (TLS), and as such can’t communicate with Google APIs.
  • Don’t have the electrical power to perform required network transmission.

A gateway device might be used even when the participating devices are capable of communicating without one. In this scenario, the gateway adds value because it provides processing of the data across multiple devices before it is sent to the cloud. In that case, the direct inputs would be other devices, not individual sensors. The following tasks would likely be relegated to a gateway device:

  • Condensing data to maximize the amount that can be sent to the cloud over a single link
  • Storing data in a local database, and then forwarding it on when the connection to cloud is intermittent
  • Providing a real-time clock, with a battery backup, used to provide a consistent timestamp for devices that can’t manage timestamps well or keep them well synchronized
  • Performing IPV6 to IPV4 translation
  • Ingesting and uploading other flat-file-based data from the local network that is relevant and associated with the IoT data
  • Acting as a local cache for firmware updates

Cloud Platform

After your IoT project is up and running, many devices will be producing lots of data. You need an efficient, scalable, affordable way to handle all that information and make it work for you. When it comes to storing, processing, and analyzing data, especially big data, it’s hard to beat the cloud.

The following diagram shows the various stages of IoT data management in Cloud Platform:

Three components

Ingestion

Ingestion is the process of importing information from devices into Cloud Platform services. Cloud Platform provides different ingestion services, depending on whether the data is telemetry or operational information about the devices and the IoT infrastructure.

Cloud Pub/Sub

Google Cloud Pub/Sub provides a globally durable message ingestion service. By creating topics for streams or channels, you can enable different components of your application to subscribe to specific streams of data without needing to construct subscriber-specific channels on each device. Cloud Pub/Sub also natively connects to other Cloud Platform services, helping you to connect ingestion, data pipelines, and storage systems.

Cloud Pub/Sub can act like a shock absorber and rate leveller for both incoming data streams and application architecture changes. Many devices have limited ability to store and retry sending telemetry data. Cloud Pub/Sub scales to handle data spikes that can occur when swarms of devices respond to events in the physical world, and buffers these spikes to help isolate them from applications monitoring the data.

In addition to standard HTTPS REST APIs, Cloud Pub/Sub also supports gRPC, a high performance, open source, general RPC framework that is useful for IoT telemetry applications, as it allows for higher throughput of binary formatted messages. The following diagram shows the results of a benchmark test using a Java client publishing 50KB messages at maximum throughput from a single n1-highcpu-16 Compute Engine VM instance, using 9 gRPC channels.

Three components

Cloud Monitoring and Cloud Logging

You’ve read in previous sections about using Cloud Monitoring and Cloud Logging for their operational advantages. Operational information is ingested by these services through their provided interfaces.

Pipeline processing tasks

Pipelines manage data after it arrives on Cloud Platform, similar to how parts are managed on a factory line. This includes tasks such as:

  • Transforming data. You can convert the data into another format, for example, converting a captured device signal voltage to a calibrated unit measure of temperature.
  • Aggregating data and computing. By combining data you can add checks, such as averaging data across multiple devices to avoid acting on a single, spurious, device. You can ensure that you have actionable data if a single device goes offline. By adding computation to your pipeline, you can apply streaming analytics to data while it is still in the processing pipeline.
  • Enriching data. You can combine the device-generated data with other metadata about the device, or with other datasets, such as weather or traffic data, for use in subsequent analysis.
  • Moving data. You can store the processed data in one or more final storage locations.

Cloud Dataflow

Google Cloud Dataflow provides a programming model and managed service for processing data in multiple ways, including batch operations, extract-transform-load (ETL) patterns, and continuous, streaming computation. Cloud Dataflow can be particularly useful for managing the high-volume data processing pipelines required for IoT scenarios. Cloud Dataflow is also designed to integrate seamlessly with the other Cloud Platform services you choose for your pipeline.

Data storage

Data from the physical world comes in various shapes and sizes. Cloud Platform offers a range of storage solutions from unstructured blobs of data, such as images or video streams, to structured entity storage of devices or transactions, and high-performance key-value databases for event and telemetry data.

Storing state in Firebase

The state of a device generally can be modeled as a set of key:value pairs. Device applications can manage this state locally.

Some device state might be directly connected to the hardware. For example, when you check the state of a digital GPIO pin, it reads as HIGH or LOW, based on the physical reading of the voltage on the pin.

Other device state might exist at the application layer. For example, recording-audio might have a state condition of true orfalse, related to whether the application is sampling from the mic or writing to disk. At the hardware level, the mic itself might be left on.

From the software perspective, the application code running on the device maintains the source of truth. It is often valuable, even required, for other software, such as a mobile app or website, to read or modify that device’s last known state. Given that IoT devices can spend some time in low-power sleep mode and might exist on particularly unreliable networks, it’s often useful to mirror some of a device’s state with the cloud. That way, state data can be made available even when the devices themselves are temporarily offline.

Firebase is one technology well suited for maintaining a local copy of the state. It lets you expose the mirrored view of the current device state through Firebase look-up keys. Firebase client libraries make it easier to give different observers and actors a consistent view of device state.

Three components

Rule processing and streaming analytics in Cloud Functions and Cloud Dataflow

IoT events and data can be sent to the cloud at a high rate and need to be processed quickly. For many IoT applications, the decision to place the device into the physical environment is made in order to provide faster access to data. For example, produce exposed to high temperatures during shipping can be flagged and disposed of immediately.

Being able to process and act on this information quickly is key. Google Cloud Functions allows you to write custom logic that can be applied to each event as it arrives. This can be used to trigger alerts, filter invalid data, or invoke other APIs. Cloud Functions can operate on each published event individually.

If you need to process data and events with more sophisticated analytics, including time windowing techniques or converging data from multiple streams, Cloud Dataflow provides a highly capable analytics tool that can be applied to streaming and batch data.

Analytics in BigQuery and Cloud Datalab

After data in the pipeline has been analyzed, it will begin to accumulate. Over time, this data provides a rich source of information for looking at trends, and can be combined with other data, including data from sources outside of your IoT devices. Google BigQuery provides a fully managed data warehouse with a familiar SQL interface, so you can store your IoT data alongside any of your other enterprise analytics and logs. The performance and cost of Bigquery means you might keep your valuable data longer, instead of deleting it just to save disk space.

Cloud Datalab is an interactive tool for large-scale data exploration, analysis, and visualization. IoT data can end up being useful for multiple use cases, depending on which other data it’s combined with. Cloud Datalab lets you interactively explore, transform, analyze, and visualize your data using a hosted online data workbench environment based on the open source Jupyter project.

Time Series dashboards with Cloud Bigtable

Certain types of data need to be quickly sliceable along known indexes and dimensions for updating core visualizations and user interfaces. Cloud Bigtable provides a low-latency and high-throughput database for NoSQL data. Cloud Bigtable provides a good place to drive heavily used visualizations and queries, where the questions are already well understood and you need to absorb or serve at high volumes.

Compared to BigQuery, Cloud BigTable works better for queries that act on rows or groups of consecutive rows, because Cloud BigTable stores data by using a row-based format. Compared to Cloud Bigtable, BigQuery is a better choice for queries that require data aggregation.

Storage in Cloud Storage Nearline

The accumulation of data from the world never stops, and the data might not always be structured. Cloud Storage provides a single API for both current-use object storage, and archival data that is used infrequently. If your IoT device captures media data, Cloud Storage can store virtually unlimited quantities durably and economically.

Conclusion

Building Internet of Things solutions involves solving challenges across a wide range of domains. Cloud Platform brings scale of infrastructure, networking, and a range of storage and analytics products you can use to make the most of device generated data.

Electro Magnetic Lock

Electro Magnetic Lock

Electro Magnetic Lock

Electro Magnetic Lock 

   The ECHIP Electromagnetic Lock is Suited For Interior Doors, Perimeter Exit Doors and Entrances that Require Failsafe Emergency Release Capability

Compatible with any access control system, ECHIP 1500 series Magnetic door locks meet the demands of security professionals, and the most rigorous building and fire life safety codes in the world. With no moving parts to bind or wear out, the Security Door Controls electromagnetic door lock provides positive, instantaneous release, whether caused by a signal from the fire command center, remote control or access control. EMLock® LIFETIME WARRANTY – ECHIP magnetic locks are covered by a lifetime warranty, see price list for details.

FEATURES

  • E-941SA-600PQ: 600lb. (272kgs) holding force.
  • Anodized aluminum housing.
  • Dual voltage: 12 or 24 VDC (selectable).
  • No residual magnetism.
  • Detachable faceplate.
  • Adjustable mounting bracket.
  • Built-in bond sensor relay output.
  • Built-in 2-color status LED.
  • MOV surge protection.
  • Magnet dimensions: 9-7/8 x 1-1/16 x 1-5/8 (250 x 26 x 40 mm)
  • Armature plate dimensions: 7-1/4 x 1/2 x 1-1/2 (185 x 12 x 38 mm)
  • Complete mounting hardware included.
  • “L” and “Z” brackets available for easy mounting.
  • CE approved and UL listed.

AC Motor Controller

AC Motor Controller

AC Motor Controller

AC Motor Controller

An induction motor is practically a constant speed motor, that means, for the entire loading range, change in speed of the motor is quite small. Speed of a DC shunt motor can be varied very easily with good efficiency, but in case of Induction motors, speed reduction is accompanied by a corresponding loss of efficiency and poor power factor. As induction motors are widely being used, their speed control may be required in many applications.

This triac-based 220V AC motor speed controller circuit is designed for controlling the speed of small household motors like drill machines. The speed of the motor can be controlled by changing the setting of P1. The setting of P1 determines the phase of the trigger pulse that fires the triac. The circuit incorporates a self-stabilizing technique that maintains the speed of the motor even when it is loaded.

A three phase induction motor is basically a constant speed motor so it’s somewhat difficult to control its speed. The speed control of induction motor is done at the cost of decrease in efficiency and low electrical power factor. Before discussing the methods to control the speed of three phase induction motor one should know the basic formulas of speed and torque of three phase induction motor as the methods of speed control depends upon these formulas. Synchronous Speed

DC Motor Controller

DC Motor Controller

DC Motor Controller

DC Motor Controller

We are the leading organization in the market to offer the best quality range of DC Motor Speed Controller.


Features:

 

  • 100% quality and Brand new.
  • Brand new and high quality.
  • Control the speed of a DC motor with this controller.
  • High efficiency, high torque, low heat generating.
  • With reverse polarity protection, high current protection.
  • The speed control switch fit for brushed motor.

Our DC motor driver family provides the simplest and most flexible IC solution available for driving brushed DC motors.

Features that simplify designs include integrated power MOSFETs and a charge pump-less power architecture that provides integrated current limiting and flexible current regulation modes. Monitoring and safety features such as overvoltage, short-circuit, and over-temperature protection, along with fault diagnostics ensure robust performance.  In addition, ultra low RON and a flexible supply voltage enable cooler running temperatures for long lived operation.  

Products:

12 V DC Motor Controller,

12 V 10 A DC Motor Controller,

24 V DC Motor Controller,

24 V 10 A DC Motor Controller,

180V DC Motor Controller,

24V DC Motor PWM Speed Controller,

180V DC Motor PWM Speed Controller,

PMDC Motor Speed Controller,

BLDC Motor Speed Controller,

E Bike Motor Speed Controller,

DC motor driver

12V DC motor driver

24V DC motor driver

12V 10 A DC motor driver

24V 10 A DC motor driver

180V DC motor driver

180V DC motor PWM  driver

Driver module features:

1, the basic components of the drive module body placement, highly integrated, well-designed board layout, very beautiful, very small, single-board power DC motor drive, the drive module size of only 56mm * 38mm;

2, when the drive motor, the module maximum rated current up to 30A, and conduction only 0.0015 ohm resistor;

3, the switching frequency is high, the most up to 60KHZ, thus effectively avoiding the low frequency of commissioning motor brings unpleasant;

4, the control interface is very simple:

To brake A1.A2 = 0.0 pm;

A1.A2 = 1.0 when forward;

A1.A2 = 0.1 when reversing;

PA PWM wave input (motor speed adjustment) for;

G is the control board common ground pin;

5V control voltage output of 200mA,

6,3.3V and 5V MCU can control this module, and only need the way the motor power (12V ~ 48V)

Driver module mechanical parameters:

1) length width high = 56 mm * 38 mm * 20 mm;

2) distribution of the four positioning hole 3 mm, the spacing of 48 mm * 30 mm;

Smart Home Automation Systems

Smart Home Automation Systems

Smart-Home-Automation-Systems

Smart Home Automation Systems

     ECHIP  Smart Home Automation Systems are rapidly evolving from a luxury few people could afford into a technology for mass consumption that will be in most homes within a few years.E Chip Control Systems used this Technology advancement and innovation represents the key driving factor for the growth of the home automation market. Demand is growing for cost efficient wireless home automation products to reduce installation and maintenance cost. Wireless technologies such as Z-wave, Zigbee, and EnOcean are seen as the way to achieve this.

Short-range wireless technology controls the wireless system around the home via the control panel, however remote control elements allow consumers to access their home devices while away from home by use of a smart phone. This communication is handled by the mobile phone/GSM network, for example switching on an oven remotely so your dinner is cooked as you walk through the door or setting the to the correct temperature heating to ensure your house is warm when you return home. Alarm systems can contact your phone by text message when triggered.

Why Buy a Home Automation System?

With home automation systems, you can forever banish concerns over unnecessary home energy expenditures and stop wondering whether or not you locked the front door. These high-tech solutions can help make your home into a smart home. In fact, a smart home system can control every light, appliance and compatible peripheral in your home.

Home Automation Systems: What to Look For

As you look for a smart house system or Smart Home Automation Systems, there are several things to keep in mind. A system with strong compatibility, the right functionality and excellent technical support is your best bet. Above all, you should try to look for a system that best suits your needs. The possibilities for automated intelligent home control are nearly limitless.

Compatible Peripherals
When you’re on the hunt for full-home automation, you need to be sure that the product you select can control the peripherals in your house to your satisfaction. A hardware controller is designed to be the control center of your home, so try to look for one that can manage a multitude of devices; this way you have greater options if you want to expand the system later on. You should look for a controller that supports common home control technologies like Bluetooth, Insteon, KNX, UPB, Wi-Fi, X10, Z-Wave and ZigBee.

There are a number of home automation peripherals to keep in mind as you choose your system. Each of the systems in our review can control lighting, thermostats, door locks, security cameras, and has environmental sensors and energy management tools to improve system efficiency. However, not all smart home systems support window coverings, garage door openers, entry sensors or home theater systems. It’s important to remember that you might need to purchase equipment from third-party manufacturers as well.

Functionality
A good system is easy to use, promotes energy efficiency and improves the safety of your home. Home automation software allows you to create custom programs to easily perform a variety of actions. Randomized programs are especially valuable, as they turn peripherals in your smart home on and off to deter criminals by making the home look occupied when you’re away.

Remote access can help you monitor your home when you’re gone. Voice control capabilities can help your system become more convenient. Depending on your preference, you should also consider whether a system requires a wired or wireless setup before committing to have it installed. Some intelligent home systems even have the option for you to subscribe to a home security monitoring service.

The best home automation solutions have plenty of features compatible with your needs. It is also essential for home automation systems to have a usable configuration and readily available customer service. It can be difficult to decide which kind of smart home you want, but with the systems in our home automation reviews, you have some options.

 

RF Remote Controller

RF Remote Controller

RF Remote Controller

RF Remote Controller

E Chip Control Systems,Chennai,India doing 2,4,6 and 8 Channels RF Transmitter,Receiver and Remote Control Systems.

The main sections of this multi channel remote control circuit are the RF receiver and transmitter. By using this circuit we can control 8 devices, each of them independently by pressing the push buttons. When the button is pushed, corresponding relay is turned ON and is turned OFF on the next push. Here the relay load current is dependent on therelay used. A serial encoder IC HT12E and a serial decoder IC HT12D are used, where the encoder IC encodes the parallel data to serial and decoder IC decodes the serial data to parallel during the wireless transmission. You must need a regulated power supply of 5 volt for this circuit because ICs 7476 and 74138 requires 5v for its operation. The main advantage of this system is that it does not require a ‘line of sight’ as compared to IR remote control systems; also it gives longer distance control.

Models: 2,4,6 and 8 Channels

Our RF based Products

RF Remote Controller based Home Automation,

RF Remote Controller based Hotel Automation,

RF Remote Controller based Office Automation,

RF Remote Controller based Inustrial Automation,

RF Remote Controller based Factory Automation,

RF Remote Controller based Timer,

RF Remote Controller based Timer Systems,

RF Remote Controller Timer,

RF Remote Controller based Data Monitoring Systems,

RF Wireless Remote Control,

RF Wireless Remote Control Systems,

RF Remote Controller based Gate Control,

RF Remote Controller based Light Control,

RF Remote Controller based Fan Control,

RF Remote Controller based Machine Control,

RF Remote Controller based Alarm Control,

RF Remote Controller based Door Control,

RF Remote Controller based Access Control Systems,

Applications

Remote Controls

Automation System

Wireless Security System

Sensor Reporting

Car Security System

Remote Keyless Entry

Supports All Wireless Applications using 8051/AVR/PIC/ARM Microcontrollers (Using HT12E – HT12D Pair)

Specifications

 The Receiver is an ASK Hybrid receiver module. It is a effective low cost solution for using 433 / 434 MHz. The Transmitter is an ASK hybrid transmitter module. It is designed by the saw resonator, with an effective low cost, small size and simple to use for designing. 

Low Power Consumption

Easy For Application

Range in open space (Standard Conditions) : 500 Meters (with Antenna) / 100-200 Meters (without Antenna)

RF ASK Transmitter

Frequency Range : 433.92 MHz

Supply Voltage : 3V ~ 12V

OutPut Power : 4 ~ 12 dBm

Standard Operating Voltage : 5V

RF ASK Receiver

Receiver Frequency : 433.92 MHz

Typical Sensitivity : 105 dBm

Supply Voltage : 3V ~ 12V

Supply Current : 3.5 mA

Standard Operating Voltage : 5V

 

Automatic Plasma Treater

Automatic Plasma Treater

Automatic Plasma Treater

Automatic Plasma Treater

Plasma Surface Treatment

Plasma surface modification technology offers innovative solutions to adhesion and wetting problems in many industries. Component preparation using plasma is an important step prior to printing, bonding, painting, varnishing and coating processes. Plasma surface modification provides an economical solution for the cleaning and activation of component surfaces before further processing.

E Chip Control Systems,Chennai,India supplies both Atmospheric Plasma and Vacuum Plasma solutions to improve the surface energy of plastic and rubber components to ensure good adhesion of printing inks, paints, adhesives, coatings, potting materials etc. and for the surface cleaning of plastic, rubber and metal parts. Plasma surface modification equipment is widely used throughout a diverse range of industries and onto an ever increasing range of substrates.

Our growing list of customers includes many in the following industries: medical, automotive component, electronics, cable, ophthalmic, pipe and many more. Through our many years of experience and continuous product development we have become one of the leading suppliers of Plasma Surface Modification equipment.

Whatever your equipment needs are in the field of Plasma Surface Modification, E Chip Control Systems,Chennai,India is here to help you find the most appropriate surface modification technology and equipment to solve your problem.

Plasma Treatment

Plasma is generally described as an ionized gas or as an electrically neutral medium of positive and negative particles. “Ionised” refers to the presence of free electrons which are not bound to an atom or molecule. Plasma or “Radiant Matter” as it was known, was first identified by Sir William Crook in 1879. Radiant Matter was later called “Plasma” by Irving Langmuir in 1928.

Plasma is the most common type of matter in the known universe whether measured by mass or volume. Every star is a giant ball of plasma, even the space between all of the stars is composed of plasma. Plasma is considered to be the 4th state of matter after solid, liquid & gas. The state of matter can be changed by adding enough energy:

Solid + Energy = Liquid
Liquid + Energy = Gas
Gas + Energy = Plasma

In general terms, when you add enough energy to atoms or molecules, what happens very quickly is that the electrons around the nucleus start to “boil off”, the temperature becomes too high for them to stay in orbit around the nucleus; that in fact is the state of most of the known universe including the state of our nearby star, that incredibly hot ball of plasma, the Sun

Our products:

Automatic Plasma Treater,

Automatic Plasma Treater Services in Chennai,

Automatic Plasma Treater Services in India,

Plasma Treater Services in India,

Plasma Treater Services in Chennai,

Plasma Treatment Systems,

Plasma Treatment Equipment,

Plasma Treatment Machine,

Plasma Generator Machine,

Plasma Generator,

Plasma Generator Equipment,

Plasma Treater,

Corona Treater,

Plasma Cleaning,

Plasma Etching,

Plasma Cleaning Systems,

Plasma Surface Treater,

 

Automatic UV Curing Systems

Automatic UV Curing Systems

Automatic UV Curing Systems

Automatic UV Curing Systems

A World class product from E Chip Control Systems,Chennai,India. This machine can be used as Offline coater for UV & Aqueous coating as well as for primer coating. It can do full and spot UV varnish on thick & thin paper at the speed of  6000 or 10,000 sheets per hour. Conventional varnish or water based varnish can also be run on this machine.

This machine includes all technical solutions for easy operation and for increasing productivity. The machine is compact and solid built on a strong C.I. frame. It is reliable at any working speed. This machine is equipped with high grade hardened grounded gears for its smooth operation for years. The UV curing lamps used in it are one of the best in the world. It consists of total vacuum bed for smooth conveying of paper and board,efficient cooling system for lamps.

IR lamps are also used for water base varnish or smoothness of UV lacquer.

Features

  • Precise registration at high speed using a precision adjustable  side and front lay.
  • Powerful stream feeder to handle stocks from 80 G.S.M to 450 G.S.M.
  • User adjustable Double Sheet Detector.
  • Maintenance free Varnish replenishment pump.
  • 2/3 UV Lamps of 300W/inch as optional.
  • Swing  Arm Gripper for high speed & accurate registration.
  • Micro adjustable front lays for easy and precise registration on the run.
  • Adjustable side lays are given for front and reverse jobs registration.
  • Delivery to accommodate a conveyor for hot air/U.V.dryers.
  • Pneumatically actuated Anilox roller and impression cylinder.
  • Quick change Anilox roller.
  • Doctor blade assembly with doctor blade angle adjustment.
  • Plate clamps suitable for clamping  blankets or photopolymer plates.
  • Full PLC control with digital touch screen human machine interface.
  • Curing speed of up to 10000 speed per hour.
  • Precise and Consistent coating weight with every job.